• I have been an elearning practitioner in the higher education sector (in Italy) for more than ten years. I worked as ... moreedit
Hanging out in social media for scholarly purposes provides PhD researchers with opportunities for getting a taste of open and networked scholarship practices as well as coping with the practices of researcher as ‘self-entrepreneur’. In... more
Hanging out in social media for scholarly purposes provides PhD researchers with opportunities for getting a taste of open and networked scholarship practices as well as coping with the practices of researcher as ‘self-entrepreneur’. In the former, an exploratory stance can complement and/or expand the shaping effort of what being a ‘digital academic’ might be for the individual researcher in formation. In the latter, the emphasis on quantified self as an academic is linked to the idea of an accelerated shaping of an academic branding.

This talk draws from recent qualitative research on individual Italian and UK-based PhD researchers self-organizing their digital engagement through social media, and discusses the extent to which they 'act upon' or are 'being acted upon' through their social media practices. The interviewed PhD researchers in fact reveal oscillations between the individual attitudes of disclosing or undisclosing their own online academic presence, weaving or splitting their personal/professional/academic identities and emulating or keeping distance from real examples of successful academic presence across digital networks. These varying attitudes are understood as emergent trajectories depicting the PhD researchers’ digital engagement.

The performance of academic identities arising from the data is inflected according to six interrelated dimensions: space, time, digital identity, socialization, stance, and tensions. The discussion of the negotiations of technology and practices through the lenses of these dimensions helps to identify four main forms of resilience on the part of PhD researchers toward the competing pressures arising from scholarly engagement online: staying afloat, pursuing convenience, embedding the digital and researcher as bricoleur.
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This work is concerned with a reflection on the construct of “chronotope” (Bakhtin, 1981) as a conceptual tool suitable for illustrating the affordances of emerging Web 2.0 learning ecologies of doctoral researchers. For the purposes of... more
This work is concerned with a reflection on the construct of “chronotope” (Bakhtin, 1981) as a conceptual tool suitable for illustrating the affordances of emerging Web 2.0 learning ecologies of doctoral researchers. For the purposes of this work, the chronotope is considered as an analytical lens suitable for illustrating the movements of PhD researchers across shifting space/time configurations (affordances) arising from scholarly environments increasingly permeated by digital mediation.

The conceptual framework under construction looks at the intersection of time and space being produced by self-directed PhD students, engaged in sifting the learning opportunities provided both by institution-bounded and self-organized learning ecologies in the open Web. The focus is on the role that personal technologies – especially social Web tools and environments – play in the function of supporting academic identity building in the course of a doctorate and in affecting the boundary crossing activities undertaken by PhD e-researchers in their efforts to draw opportunities from hybrid (analog/digital; formal/informal) learning ecologies.

The developmental phases of a doctoral journey (Gardner, 2009), along with the interweaving of past-present-future in the “identity-trajectory” of PhD students (McAlpine & Amundsen, 2011), are adopted to provide a preliminary frame for the object of study. It is argued that the notion of chronotope, understood as multiple and variously appearing institutional constraints and individual motivations, can help to make sense of the extent to which this new ‘species’ of doctoral e-researcher is able to co-evolve within the academic culture of the local research training environments.
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How do university researchers consider attributes such as ‘digital’ and ‘open’ as regards to their research practices? This article reports a small–scale interview project carried out at the University of Milan, aiming to probe whether... more
How do university researchers consider attributes such as ‘digital’ and ‘open’ as regards to their research practices? This article reports a small–scale interview project carried out at the University of Milan, aiming to probe whether and to what extent actual digital research practices are affecting cultures of sharing in different subject areas and are prompting emergent approaches such as open publishing, open data, open education and open boundary between academia and society. Most of the 14 interviewed researchers seem not to see any clear benefit to move to further technological means or new open practices and call for institutional support and rules. However, a few profiles of ‘digital, networked and open’ researchers stand out and show both a self–legitimating approach to new modes of knowledge production and distribution and a particular sensitiveness towards values and perspectives driven by ‘openness’ in digital networks.
Qual è l’impatto dei nuovi tools del Web 2.0 sulle pratiche di comunicazione e di pubblicazione dei ricercatori? Tratto da una tesi per un Master of Research, l’articolo riporta una selezione dei risultati di 14 interviste... more
Qual è l’impatto dei nuovi tools del Web 2.0 sulle pratiche di comunicazione e di pubblicazione dei ricercatori? Tratto da
una tesi per un Master of Research, l’articolo riporta una selezione dei risultati di 14 interviste semi-strutturate ad altrettanti
ricercatori senior, junior e dottorandi, operanti nelle aree umanistica e delle scienze sociali, della fisica e della medicina. Se
l’atteggiamento più diffuso riguarda un approccio pragmatico e attento all’efficienza nella selezione e nell’uso dei tool vecchi e
nuovi, tuttavia emergono alcuni isolati profili di nuovi ‘digital scholar’ che costruiscono in rete la propria identità digitale insieme
alla produzione e alla distribuzione di conoscenza, nonostante la mancanza di legittimazione del proprio contesto di riferimento.
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This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights... more
This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants’ experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC – Massive Online Open Course. A MOOC is a popular type of online open course, that provides free content and expertise to anyone in the world who wishes to enroll. The purposes of this article are to briefly outline recent debates on online research ethics approaches and then to explore competing views on ethical decision-making when researching in a globalized, online and open learning setting. Considering the challenges of this new elearning inquiry context, issues as the underlying research ethics models, the roles of researcher and participants and the integrity of the research process are discussed in their interplay with the evolving ethos of the ethnographical methodology being adopted to investigate participants’ views. Elements drawn from a hypothetical design of a qualitative study are here utilized to identify an empirical instance that shapes and is being shaped by research ethics decisions. The study aims to answer the following question: what are the affordances (opportunities and challenges) of online open courses as they emerge from the participants’ perspectives? This paper considers the potential operationalization of the above research question and discusses both theoretical and methodological issues arising from applying research ethics to this specific case of Internet inquiry. In this sense, ethical approaches in online research contexts as well as main ethical decisions are discussed and justified, envisioning a submission to an institutional ethics review board before undertaking the ethnographical study. Topics such as privacy concerns in a public online setting, choice between overt and covert research, researcher as observer or participant, narrow or loosely defined application of the informed consent and anonymity are outlined, presenting a range of different options. This article intends to show that ethical decisions are an iterative procedure and an integral part of the research design process. Moreover, it endorses the opportunity to produce localized and contextualized ethical decision-making. To this end, it takes into account the guidance available (research ethics literature; narratives of ethics procedures applied to empirical cases); the ethics debates within the ethnographical tradition and the nature of the setting being researched (the specific format of the networked learning instance being examined). The discussion here proposed orientates ethical decision-making towards an overt and participant research approach, an informed consent intended as a ‘public notice’ and a consideration of participants both as authors in the online setting and as human subjects embedding unexpected privacy sensitiveness. However, such decisions are considered as many starting points to build a research ethics protocol intended to a degree as a work in progress, in a problem-solving approach guided by the practical wisdom of participants emerging over time.
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This paper focuses on ethics issues implied in a prospective virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants’ experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC – Massive Online Open Course. A MOOC is... more
This paper focuses on ethics issues implied in a prospective virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants’ experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC – Massive Online Open Course. A MOOC is a popular type of online open course, that provides free content and expertise to anyone in the world who wishes to enroll. This kind of informal lifelong learning initiative is enabled by a network-based pedagogy and is enacted in a distributed technology-mediated learning environment.
The purpose of this article is to explore competing views on ethical decision-making when researching in such a globalized, online and open learning setting. Considering the challenges of this new elearning inquiry context, issues as the underlying research ethics models, the roles of researcher and participants and the integrity of the research process are discussed in their interplay with the evolving ethos of the ethnographical methodology being adopted to investigate participants’ views.
Elements drawn from the design of a qualitative study are here utilized to identify an empirical instance that shapes and is being shaped by research ethics decisions. The study aims to answer the following question: what are the affordances (opportunities and challenges) of online open courses as they emerge from the participants’ perspectives?
This paper considers the potential operationalization of the above research question and discusses both theoretical and methodological issues arising from applying research ethics to this specific case of Internet inquiry. In this sense, ethical approaches in online research contexts as well as main ethical decisions are discussed and justified, envisioning a submission to an institutional ethics review board before undertaking the ethnographical study. Topics such as privacy concerns in a public online setting, choice between overt and covert research, researcher as observer or participant, narrow or loosely defined application of the informed consent and anonymity are outlined, presenting a range of different options. This article intends to show that ethical decisions are an iterative procedure and an integral part of the research design process. Moreover, it endorses the opportunity to produce localized and contextualized ethical decision-making. To this end, it takes into account the guidance available (research ethics literature; narratives of ethics procedures applied to empirical cases); the ethics debates within the ethnographical tradition and the nature of the setting being researched (the specific format of the networked learning instance being examined).
The discussion here proposed orientates ethical decision-making towards an overt and participant research approach, an informed consent intended as a ‘public notice’ and a consideration of participants both as authors in the online setting and as human subjects embedding unexpected privacy sensitiveness. However, such decisions are intended as many starting points to build a research ethics protocol intended to a degree as a work in progress, in a problem-solving approach guided by the practical wisdom of participants emerging over time.
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This chapter stems from the need to focus on the inherent interplay of faculty and student engagement while studying the impact of social media in higher education teaching and learning. The discussion is specifically concerned with the... more
This chapter stems from the need to focus on the inherent interplay of faculty and student engagement while studying the impact of social media in higher education teaching and learning. The discussion is specifically concerned with the role and affordances of microblogging in the re-thinking of the teacher/student relationship and in blurring the boundaries of academic contexts. The chapter examines an early experimentation of Twitter use to foster and monitor participation by the master students enrolled in a Human Resources Management class in an Italian university. The pilot is discussed referring to lessons learned from a range of accounted empirical cases and relevant studies on microblogging for teaching and learning in academia. A special focus addresses both a revised notion of academic scholarship and engagement, prompted by emergent profiles of networked faculty, and debates about the multiple ways of conceptualizing student engagement in the current academic cultures and contexts, being challenged by an increasingly complex digital landscape and by a varied typology of learners coming to university. As conclusion, issues related to the range of alignments to be taken into account when adopting social networking services in a higher education context are suggested as cues for an ongoing discussion.
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This chapter reports selected findings from a small-scale, exploratory study aiming to provide a 'snapshot' of actual modes of uptake of new digital tools for research purposes. The study consists of an interview project, carried out in a... more
This chapter reports selected findings from a small-scale, exploratory study aiming to provide a 'snapshot' of actual modes of uptake of new digital tools for research purposes. The study consists of an interview project, carried out in a large Italian university and constituted by semi-structured interviews to 14 senior, young and doctoral researchers, working in Humanities, Social Sciences, Medicine and Physics subject areas. Whereas the most popular attitude is a pragmatic and efficiency-driven approach in selecting and using old and new tools, a few isolated profiles of ‘digital scholars’ emerge, championing the construction of their digital identity along with networked modes of knowledge production and distribution, despite the lack of legitimation of their own research context.
I social media offrono opportunità inedite e nuove sfide al contesto didattico universitario, promettendo di innovare le pratiche correnti di insegnamento e di apprendimento e prefigurando di mettere in crisi i valori fondanti e gli... more
I social media offrono opportunità inedite e nuove sfide al contesto didattico universitario, promettendo di innovare le pratiche correnti di insegnamento e di apprendimento e prefigurando di mettere in crisi i valori fondanti e gli assetti istituzionali e organizzativi della didattica accademica. Il presente capitolo intende offrire nella prima parte uno sguardo d’insieme sui dibattiti in corso sul tema e sulle tensioni create da queste tecnologie emergenti. Particolare attenzione è riservata alla questione delle potenzialità “rivoluzionarie” dei social media applicate alla didattica; al rapporto tra i social media e l’istituzione universitaria; ai “miti” sulle competenze tecnologiche degli studenti e sulle loro aspettative; alle nuove ‘alfabetizzazioni’. Nella seconda parte vengono illustrati alcuni esempi significativi di utilizzo didattico dei social media, attraverso una selezione di casi d’uso di blog, wiki, podcast e microblogging.
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This research explores the extent to which the emergent engagement of the Italian PhD researchers in the open Web is affecting their doctoral journey. These new profiles of individual PhD e-researchers are seen as engaged with hybrid... more
This research explores the extent to which the emergent engagement of the Italian PhD researchers in the open Web is affecting their doctoral journey. These new profiles of individual PhD e-researchers are seen as engaged with hybrid (physical/virtual; institutional/self-organized) learning ecologies, which they move across in order to draw and partly co-build the respective learning opportunities. This exploratory study firstly aims to add to the knowledge base of empirical studies on new forms of ICTs appropriation and academic practices of doctoral students, a topic to date underexplored in the Italian university setting.  Secondly, findings are likely to provide suggestions for future design of research training, considering changes occurring in PhD researchers’ personal ecologies, along with networked scholarship practices pioneered by well-established researchers. The methodology is informed by a constructivist grounded theory approach, in which the perspective of ‘learning ecologies’ (Barron, 2006) and the metaphor of ‘chronotope’ (Bakhtin, 1981) play a role as ‘sensitizing concepts’. Three Italian and one UK universities were involved as research settings to deliver two online questionnaires, three cycles of one-to one interviews and four focus groups. Among the preliminary findings, the Italian doctoral researchers appear to endorse a pragmatic rather than innovative approach when they focus on academic uses of social media, with a general tendency to view the open Web more as a repository of updated and varied content rather than as a venue for networking and collaboration. However, a range of goal orientations were identified in making sense of digital services: ‘pioneering’, where the attempt is overcoming a mere convenience approach; ‘coping with’, where the effort is providing bespoke and efficient support to occasional, practical needs; ‘waiting for the mainstream’, where individual engagement occurs only when digital practices become embedded; and ‘rejecting’, where the open Web is seen as irrilevant to the academic sphere.
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"The topic of the impact of Web 2.0 ecologies on the learning contexts of PhD candidates is of particular interest for innovation in higher education teaching and learning. However, this theme results so far underesearched in literature,... more
"The topic of the impact of Web 2.0 ecologies on the learning contexts of PhD candidates is of particular interest for innovation in higher education teaching and learning. However, this theme results so far underesearched in literature, in particular in the Italian higher education setting.
The present paper reports selected findings from an exploratory study investigating how individual doctoral researchers cope with competing institution-led and self-organized, analogue and digital opportunities for learning. This article is based on preliminary results of an online questionnaire which was delivered between September and October 2012 across three Italian universities. The questionnaire aimed to describe the components (people, resources, tools, people and related interactions) of the emerging learner-centered “ecology of resources” [Luckin, 2010], characterizing individual doctoral students variously dealing with their needs of support and striving to achieve their being ‘independent researcher’. The surveyed Italian doctoral students seem to be usual adopters of social media in their everyday life, but there are also signs that they are currently adopting tools and services available in the open Web to undertake activities usually required in their doctoral programs. The research participants show a pragmatic attitude towards the Web 2.0 services and state to be prompted to use such tools mainly by ‘occasional, practical needs’ related to their research activity. Although very few respondents actually curate an ‘academic’ presence in social media, they generally credit the social Web with a wider, still unexploited potential to improve some research tasks. Finally, it is worth noting that the provision or lack of specific research training on these emergent tools plays a key role in the indicated motivations. This early portrait of the emerging learning ecologies of current doctoral researchers sparks cues for reflecting on the extent to which the design of formation of future scholars should take into account changes occurring in learning spaces, also in the light of new forms of networked scholarship being pioneered in the social Web.
"
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This paper summarizes a doctoral research currently in its early stage. The study explores the extent to which Web 2.0 technologies are affecting the ways PhD students learn to become researchers. The planned study will firstly survey... more
This paper summarizes a doctoral research currently in its early stage. The study explores the extent to which Web 2.0 technologies are affecting the ways PhD students learn to become researchers. The planned study will
firstly survey resources and tools available to and digitally-mediated practices undertaken by the doctoral researchers enrolled in three Italian and one UK universities. Secondly, it will identify, interview and observe
new doctoral ‘e-researchers’, defined as self-directed learners striving to build up disciplinary knowledge, academic literacies and their ‘being scholars’ both in traditional university contexts and in networked digital
environments. The doctoral work is designed with a mainly qualitative approach and aims to highlight descriptive features of individual PhD e-researchers’ learning ecologies. A specific focus will address
contrasting modes of using and interpreting spatial and temporal dimensions of the doctoral experience in formal research training contexts and in self-organised networked practices. It is argued that findings can reveal the extent to which such pioneer doctoral researchers are co-evolving together with the emerging modes of networked scholarship, that are changing research practices. The expected results are also likely to suggest implications for transforming current practices of doctoral pedagogy in university settings.
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This doctoral dissertation reports an exploratory study on how emerging learning ecologies enabled by Web 2.0 and social web are affecting the self-organized practices and dispositions in the digital of individual PhD students. The PhD... more
This doctoral dissertation reports an exploratory study on how emerging learning ecologies enabled by Web 2.0 and social web are affecting the self-organized practices and dispositions in the digital of individual PhD students. The PhD candidates are increasingly expected to be ‘doctoral researchers’ rather than ‘doctoral students’ and to demonstrate a greater autonomy in crafting their future position and their becoming ‘knowledge worker’ in a network of research bonds and digital resources. On the other hand, they are provided with unprecedented opportunities to draw advantages from a personalized uptake of social media in their research training and to shape their ‘being researchers’ in a functional or divergent manner with respect to the self-entrepreneurial role they are called to perform as newer researchers.
I have contended in this PhD study the relevance of gaining empirical evidence of the current higher education student experience in the digital, in particular at the intersection of being a learner in higher education and becoming a digital scholar in academia. In this perspective, I set out to gain further understandings on students’ experience of e-learning in higher education, as an informed basis for universities to design new social web aware spaces for research training. Likewise, I aimed to gain insights of the extent to which the PhD students are influenced in their doctoral journey by the emerging scholarly practices in the digital networks and in which ways they mould social media affordances for their doctoral needs.
Thus, this research has explored the emerging learning ecologies of a sample of research students dealing with the Web 2.0 opportunities that are likely to be combined or to compete with the established practices of the local research training and with the scholarly conventions grounded in specific subject areas. The research topic has resulted underexplored, especially in the Italian higher education sector. This lack of empirical research fits the choice of a constructivist grounded theory approach, where the concepts of ‘learning ecologies’ and ‘chronotope’ (lit. time/space) have played a role as ‘sensitizing concepts’ in guiding research questions and data collection. These theoretical assumptions have been discussed and integrated in a non-prescriptive theoretical framework. The interplay of spatial and temporal affordances of ‘learning ecologies’ as shaped by PhD e-researchers are here considered relevant to highlight the inherent features of learning ecologies as complex and evolving systems and to reveal characteristics of student agency on the part of individual learners.
The theoretical framework has helped to refine the analytical focus of the following research questions: 1) to what extent do the PhD students learn to become researchers using digital tools and environments of Web 2.0; 2) how the trajectories carried out by the PhD e-researchers in emerging learning ecologies can be conceptualized; 3) what the qualitative findings tell us about the chronotopes activated in the emerging learning ecologies of PhD e-researchers; 4) what are the tensions arising between institution-led activities and emerging self-organized learning opportunities of new PhD ‘e-researchers’.
An extensive data gathering process has been undertaken across three Italian and one UK universities and has included a sequence of online questionnaires, individual interviews and focus groups. Among the findings, I have firstly drawn a repertoire of digitally-mediated practices self-organized by individual PhD students mostly in an ephemeral and often unplanned manner, but aiming to creatively support or enhance their scholarly practices. Secondly, the analysis of the trajectories in the digital has led to the development of the Digital Engagement Variation framework, where digital engagement is mapped out considering the variation patterns framed by the dimensions of Space, Time, Socialization, Digital Identity, Stance and Tensions. These are intended to be broad categories guiding the theoretical consideration of the socially and historically situated digital behaviours the research participants may display as individuals and as a collective set of people. Thus, some meanings attributed to the Bakhtinian chronotope have been adopted to metaphorically enlight the core value of digital engagement in terms of resilience, that is as the capacity of the PhD e-researchers to act upon or being acted upon the opportunities of the open Web. Diverse forms of resilience have been identified in PhD researchers, as characterized by peculiar individual dispositions, time and space perspectives: Staying afloat, Pursuing convenience, Embedding the digital and Playing as a bricoleur.
To sum up, we have achieved the theoretical understanding of the affordances of PhD e-researchers’ emerging ecologies as multi-dimensional and transitional trajectories intentionally undertaken by the individual and generating different reactions toward the opportunities provided by the open Web. These empirical and theoretical achievements have coalesced into implications for practice, where the analysis of the tensions underlying the PhD students’ digital engagement has helped to better understand the need for grounding any institutional initiative on social media training for research in the preliminary exploration of student experience and in the negotiation of a ‘partnership’ between doctoral education’s stakeholders and newer researchers.
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This MRes dissertation reports an interview project focusing on research practices being transformed by current digital landscape. This theme constitutes an under-researched area in higher education in Italy. This small-scale and... more
This MRes dissertation reports an interview project focusing on research practices being transformed by current digital landscape. This theme constitutes an under-researched area in higher education in Italy. This small-scale and exploratory study aims to highlight overlaps, contradictions and mutual influences of traditional and new research practices as currently mediated by personal and infrastructural technologies. In particular, it intends to probe whether and to what extent actual digital scholarship's practices are affecting cultures of sharing in different research fields, prompting emergent approaches such as open publishing, open data, open education and open boundary between academia and society. The study is carried out at the University of Milan and relies on scholars' voices to draw emergent research behaviours and needs of new values, rules, training and support. That said, the study aims to: 1) identify current and emergent digital scholarly practices being undertaken by researchers working in an higher education setting, in different subject areas; 2) explore whether, in which ways and to what extent such research practices in digital environment constitute a “break” against the tradition, and how open approaches in researching and teaching are implied.

The study embeds an open research approach and consists in a series of interviews to 14 senior, young and doctoral researchers selected from different Departments. Convenience and snowball sampling strategies are applied to select informants from four different broad subject areas (Humanities, Social Sciences, Physics, Medicine). Interviews data are analyzed through comparison with previous empirical studies and by examining any implications for emerging modes of knowledge production and distribution, differences in ICTs appropriation in diverse subject areas and related problems of legitimation and motivation in part of individual researchers.
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The proposed handbook is intended to provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge collection of research studies enlighting specific aspects of the academic practices enabled by the digital age and leading to the configuration of Research 2.0... more
The proposed handbook is intended to provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge collection of research studies enlighting specific aspects of the academic practices enabled by the digital age and leading to the configuration of Research 2.0 as emergence of the science in transition. The book sets out to illustrate a plurality of empirical and critical perspectives In particular, it aims to highlight the tensions arising from the enactement of digital, networked and open research practices and the needs for the newer researchers for developing key research skills for the digital age.

Contributors are welcome to submit chapters on the following topics related to emerging research practices in the digital age

    State of the art
    Reviews of studies on changing academic practices in the digital age
    Survey and interview research about digitally-mediated academic practices
    Researching and networking across social media
    Experimenting collaborative research across social networks
    Participatory research with non-specialized audiences across social networks
    Constructing shared bibliographies
    Undertaking data collection across digital networks
    Maintaining research dialogues in the open Web
    Building academic reputation across social media
    Openness enabled by digital research
    Experimenting forms of open publishing
    Experimenting forms of open peer review
    Disseminating research through open access venues
    Pilots of open notebook science
    Blogging for journaling research projects
    Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding for research purposes
    New forms of research stemming from open data
    Ethical and legal issuess in digital and open research
    Privacy, confidentiality and informed consent researching MOOCs
    Autorship and vulnerability of research participants in open digital environments
    Research integrity, accountability and copyright issues with open research data
    Issues in adapting research data for open re-use
    Ethical issues in research with big data
    Implications for research quality and assessment
    Developing skills for digital, networked and open research
    The newer researchers and social media for scholarly purposes
    Mapping the key research sills needed in the digital age
    The role of OERs and MOOCs in training new research skills
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